Adrienne is a certified dog trainer, behavior consultant, former veterinarian assistant, and author of "Brain Training for Dogs."
Research Unveils Peeing Positions in Dogs
Dog-peeing positions: Who would have ever thought about this topic? We often think we know everything there is to know about dogs, but it seems like there is always something new to learn about them.
When it comes to their elimination habits, most of us probably don’t think much about them, as long as it doesn’t happen in the neighbor’s yard. I mean who really pays attention to what a dog is doing during elimination, right?
Recently, however, researchers have begun to investigate the ritualistic art of peeing in dogs, and its relationship to gender, environment, health, and other areas of a dog’s life.
And when it comes to dogs, there are never rules set in stone. For us humans, it isn’t untypical to assume that the female dog squats and the male dog lifts its leg. This can be a surprising misconception though, as some dogs do the reverse while others do both depending on their environment, health, and other external and internal factors.
Still, other dogs turn this basic bodily function of peeing into an art-form likened to a circus trick, complete with headstand and other acrobatics.
So, what has research discovered so far? Read on to find out.
First Off, How Many Peeing Positions Are There in Dogs?
Believe it or not, dogs' peeing positions have been studied in-depth as far as 1973. Courtesy of researchers Sprague and Anisko, who studied how many urinating postures were found to be exhibited by dogs of either gender, we now know that dogs may display as many as a dozen peeing postures.
Here is the list of them:
- Stand: The dog is peeing in a standing position.
- Lean: The dog is peeing by leaning forward.
- Raise: The dog is peeing by simply raising the leg.
- Elevate: The typical male posture, the dog is peeing by lifting the leg above the hip.
- Flex: The dog is peeing by flexing the rear legs.
- Squat: The typical female posture, the dog is peeing by squatting down with the legs flexed more.
- Lean raise: The dog is peeing by leaning forward but also lifts the leg.
- Flex-raise: The dog is peeing by raising the leg and flexing it.
- Handstand: The dog is peeing by lifting both rear legs.
- Arch: The dog is peeing by arching the back while the back legs are bent.
- Squat-raise: The dog is peeing by squatting and raising the rear leg.
- Arch-raise: The dog is peeing by arching and raising the leg.
As the saying goes, a picture is worth one thousand words, so below you can see what these dog peeing positions exactly look like. Just don't try these positions at home!
The Role of Gender in Dog Peeing
While gender isn’t a foundation or basis for any particular behavior in any species, in the dog world, some traits are clear for each gender.
Since peeing for dogs is sometimes thought of as sexually dimorphic behavior, male dogs are known for lifting their leg to pee, while females are most often known for squatting.
These patterns are also seen in other animals and humans based predominately on our anatomical differences.
Why Do Male Dogs Lift Their Legs to Pee?
One theory has it that dogs lift their legs to pee because this position grants a protective action to prevent an over-splash during the process. On top of this, this position allows dogs to direct their urine and their scent exactly where they want it to go, most likely on a variety of vertical surfaces. Yup, we're talking about the habit of urine marking, here.
The pee is strategically placed on vertical surfaces so other dogs can examine it, conveniently finding it at nose-level. It's as if these dogs are people leaving their business cards on bulletin boards, aiming to place them at eye-level so that they're easily noticeable.
Yup, that's why dogs pee on car tires, bushes, utility poles, and the quintessential fire hydrant during a short walk through the neighborhood! Maximus was here, Maximus was here, Maximus was here and here and here and here! Yes, Maximus was everywhere!
Why Do Female Dogs Squat to Pee?
While the male dog is thought to pee for the purpose of urine marking, as noted above, female dogs are often thought to pee just for elimination. Anyone who owns a female dog knows this is a myth; research shows that female dogs also use elimination to scent mark.
A study of six unaltered non-breeding female Jack Russell terriers showed that during walks, they were more likely to scent mark objects. This occurred when they were on walks that took them away from their home territory.
This proves that a male dog isn’t the only gender to scent mark and that a female dog doesn't have to be in heat to scent mark!
Peeing Outside the Box
Like humans, no dog likes to be put in a box, therefore, there are always exceptions to every rule when it comes to a dog’s behavior, including elimination. Therefore, it isn’t uncommon to see a male dog squat or a female lift her leg.
According to Scott & Fuller in a 1965 study of dogs, male dogs that were set apart from each other showed a higher incidence of squatting. The strongest trigger for leg lifting in males appeared to be sensing the odor from a dog that belonged to a different social group.
Female dogs do sometimes lift their leg to urinate, but not as often as male dogs. One theory, as explained by Patricia McConnell, is a phenomenon called “androgenization” which explains that these female, masculine dogs are flushed with androgen in utero and are therefore more likely to display male behavior characteristics, including lifting a leg to pee.
As told by Peter Borchelt, Ph.D., certified applied animal behaviorist: "Pre-natal masculinization happens in mammals that give birth to multiple offspring where the males outnumber the females in the litter and a hormonal transfer occurs during prenatal development."
Health can also play a part in a dog’s urination habits. If any male dog that has lifted a leg his whole life suddenly starts squatting, he should be taken to a veterinarian for a checkup. Back pain, orthopedic problems, and even internal organs may be the culprit.
Dogs Doing Hand Stands When Peeing
And then you have dogs who take peeing at a higher level, engaging in some entertaining circus tricks: Introducing dogs who do hand stands while peeing! What's up with these dogs?
Interestingly, there is even a study on this to explain what may be going on. Turns out, on top of providing info about a dog's sex, age, and reproductive status, pee left on a vertical surface helps other dogs supposedly envision the dog's size.
In other words, the higher the urine mark, the larger the size of the dog. But things can get deceiving at times due to the fact that there may be some tricky dynamics going on in the pee department.
Introducing, the team of "dishonest markers" small, often pint-sized dogs known for carrying out deceptive practices when they hike their legs to urine mark.
According to the study, such small adult male dogs purposely exaggerate their leg lifts for the purpose of appearing larger than what they really are.
So what's the purpose for such deceitful strategies? Apparently it's a matter of self-preservation. According to McGuide & Bernis' study, such cheating occurs because direct social interactions with large dogs could turn out being costly for them considering their petite sizes. And who can blame them? With so many large to giant dogs around, any direct encounters may put them at risk for becoming lunch.
On top of this, there is the possibility that such peeing may be carried out with an intent to "over mark." Over marking, in simple words, is the practice of a dog peeing over another dog's pee. Small dogs may therefore aim high to pee so to cover the urine of larger dogs with their own scent.
Of course, until further studies come out, these are just assumptions. In the meanwhile, enjoy the acrobatic show below!
"Small dogs urinate more frequently and direct more urinations than large dogs, which may indicate a preference by small dogs for communicating through scent marking rather than direct interactions that could be risky."
— ~McGuide & Bernis, 2017
The Bottom Line
While urination may seem like a straight forward and basic bodily function we all need to perform, dogs can sometimes turn it into an art form. Whether for social, gender, or health reasons it can be as unique as the dog itself.
Whatever their reason, we should be thankful for the comic relief dogs bring into our lives. From the wet shoe they decide to chew, to the toilet bowl they can’t stop drinking out of, they are a delight to behold.
Maybe one day they will also teach us a few of those awesome tricks!
Dr. Bonnie V. Beaver,"Canine Behavior: Insights and Answers"
McGuire, B., Olsen, B., Bemis, K. E., & Orantes, D. (2018). Urine marking in male domestic dogs: honest or dishonest? Journal of Zoology, 25 July 2018
Sprague, R. H., & Anisko, J. J. (1973). Elimination patterns in the laboratory beagle. Behaviour, 47(3-4), 257–267
© 2020 Adrienne Farricelli
Adrienne Farricelli (author) on May 27, 2020:
Peggy, I was thinking the same thing; how much pee does this dog doing the handstand have? Crazy.
Devika Primić from Dubrovnik, Croatia on May 27, 2020:
I noticed puppies eating their poo but never thought much of it though it was a weird sight. You inform me on dog's behaviors and types of dogs as pets, informative and interesting hub.
Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on May 27, 2020:
All of our dogs have been spayed or neutered. From my observation, I think that marking their territory is instinctual. That last video with the dog doing a handstand while urinating was amazing. First of all was the handstand, and secondly, the amount of urine he had in his bladder seemed endless!
Adrienne Farricelli (author) on May 27, 2020:
The behavior of dogs eating their own poop is known as "coprophagia." Fortunately, as puppies mature, they tend to outgrow this habit, but in some dogs it persists past puppy hood.
James C Moore from Joliet, IL on May 25, 2020:
I can't say that I paid close attention to my prior dogs peeing prowess. But, I do remember one who as a puppy would eat his own droppings. Haven't seen that before or since. Do you know anything about that behavior?
Adrienne Farricelli (author) on May 25, 2020:
It's interesting you say that because my male Rottie used to pee right next to or even on top of my female's pee. And yes, both like yours were spayed and neutered. Perhaps those instincts prevail even with hormones out of the way.
My male was squatting for most of his first year, until he met my father in laws' intact male collie who taught him the art of leg raising. He never looked back after that.
A dog I have been boarding/training instead has this interesting habit of digging a hole and then peeing in it. Odd!
Heidi Thorne from Chicago Area on May 25, 2020:
Would you believe this is actually a topic of conversation at our house? When we take our pups on extended walks, they will exhibit multiple peeing positions.
But here's what we've noticed with almost every male-female pair of pups we've had. Where one goes, the other almost always pees in about the exact same place. We just say they're "tagging" their dog gang territory. :)
But we wonder whether it has to do with them protecting each other or signaling affiliation to other dogs in the neighborhood. Our dogs are spayed and neutered. So it might not be like they're posting on a doggie dating site. ;)
Dogs are endlessly fascinating, eh? Thanks for sharing all the fun and useful info, as always!
Jack Russell Training
If you want to learn more about training and controlling your Jack Russell, my ebook is bound to save you hours of training trial and error and relieve a lot of stress from the process: The Jack Russell Lover's Ultimate Guide to Training comes complete with a full chapter on mix breeds.
"Jack Russell Training can seem almost impossible. Unless you have expert advice"
Jack Russell training can be fun for both you and the dog - if you know what you're doing. If you don't, it could be a drawn out and frustrating experience. If you try to train a JRT without proven techniques and knowledge, you may very well end up wasting hours trying to teach a dog that is not only just as disobedient as when you started - he also picks up bad habits from incorrect training, and you're worse off than if you had done nothing.
The best place to start is with my free special report on Jack Russell Terrier training mistakes. The easy tips and action steps in this course can mean the difference between a well-behaved pet and a little terror.
Jack Russell training is notoriously difficult. JRTs have a bad reputation as being untrainable, largely because of their built-in hunting instinct. Training Jack Russells can seem almost impossible. unless you have expert advice on the subject. Despite this, Jack Russell Terrier training is very simple with the right techniques. Jack Russells are highly intelligent dogs. They can learn quickly, but because of their strong-willed nature, Jack Russell training is an undertaking that requires patience. The bad rap JRTs get is more due to uneducated and impatient trainers than a flaw in the dogs. This resource provides you with the knowledge to put together a Jack Russell training program and get your dog up to a high standard of obedience.
Because JRTs are unique, it helps to have Jack Russell-specific training techniques and information. This will help you to understand and avoid the common pitfalls involved in training JRTs. Training shouldn't be a chore - it should be another way for you and your dog to grow closer together.
Jack Russell Puppy Training - Quick Guides
Are you a new Jack Russell puppy owner, feeling a bit overwhelmed and wondering where to begin your Jack Russell training efforts? Take a look at the Quick Guide to Jack Russell Puppy Training to get started. You will also want to check out the Quick Guide To Housebreaking Jack Russell Terriers for some useful advice and links to essential information. Also, you might want to have a read through the Quick Guide To Jack Russell Behaviour to get an idea of the problems you might run into, why they happen and what to do about them.
For a general overview of goals you should be setting for training your dog and what you can expect at different ages, from puppies through to old Jack Russells, check out this article on training Jack Russells at different stages of growth.
Top Jack Russell Training Tips
One of the most important aspects of Jack Russell training is socialization. This means getting the dog used to being around people, cars, household appliances, other dogs, and other animals. You don't want your Jack Russell going crazy every time you turn on the dishwasher. Socialization should begin as early as possible. Early socializing will mean fewer problems when the puppy grows up. Any other pets, especially rats, hamsters, or other small furry things, should be introduced to your Jack Russell slowly and under close supervision. Successful Jack Russell training begins with socialization.
Remember - when training a Jack Russell, food is your friend. Always reward good behavior with food and encouragement - your attention and praise are as important as a reward as the food is. Also, use the dog's toys are rewards.
Never punish your dog for behaviors that are caused by anxiety. Read more about separation anxiety in Jack Russell Terriers here This is one of the big pitfalls of Jack Russell training, and dog training in general. Studies have proven that rewarding good behavior is much more effective as a teaching tool than punishing bad behavior. If time has passed between the bad deed and the punishment, the dog will have no idea what it's being punished for anyway. It will just think it has a crazy owner. Correction of the behavior and a firm no, or taking away a treat or toy, is generally the most punishment you should ever need to train the dog. If your dog wets itself from fear every time it sees a stranger, rubbing its nose in its urine will not only fail to correct the behavior - it will be counter-productive. When you catch the dog doing something wrong, use a firm "No," correct the behavior, then reward the good behavior.
For Jack Russell training to be successful, there needs to be mutual respect between dog and trainer. If you are harsh with you Jack Russell, training is unlikely to work out well. On the flipside, if you're afraid of your Jack Russell, training it will be difficult as it will assume a dominant role and will not be willing to obey commands. Never show signs of anger to your dog. JRTs in particular are good at reading facial expressions and body language.
Don't try to slap a collar and lead on a Jack Russell and expect to begin the training session ten seconds later. Allow the dog time to walk around with the lead trailing behind it, until it gets used to the feeling.
Mental exercise is just as important for a Jack Russell as physical exercise, so after your dog has mastered the basic commands listed here, try teaching it some more advanced tricks to keep its brain sharp.
Most abnormal problems are a result of not enough exercise or not enough owner attention. Much so-called "problem behavior" is really just a Jack Russell doing what Jack Russells do.
For more tips and advice on Jack Russell specific training, particularly training difficult adult dogs and rescue dogs, read more about Jack Russell Terrier training here.
To really make the most of your time and avoid the most common training problems, sign up for my free 7 Day Jack Russell Training Crash Course.
Common Issues in Jack Russell Training - Behavior Problems
Jumping up. This is very common in JRTs. They get so excited to see you coming home, or to meet a new stranger, that they can't keep all four paws on the ground for more than a split second. This can be amusing at first, but it quickly becomes tiresome. For some people it can be frightening, and even dangerous for some - there is a lot of power in those four little legs, and even though JRTs are small they can still knock someone down. To control this problem, teach your dog the Down command. It also helps to kneel down to be on the dog's level.
Barking too much. Jack Russells are well known to be serial barkers. They can be set off by the slightest noise, a stranger arriving, spotting another animal - or just about anything else. You need to consider what is causing the barking in the first place. It's hard to get rid of normal, instinctual barking, but excessive barking that is really a problem is usually a learned behavior. Barking can be handy if there happens to be a burglar breaking into your house, but often it just causes a headache. If your dog is barking too much, teaching it the Speak command can give you more control over when it barks. Also try experimenting with the dog's living conditions. For example, let the dog sleep inside instead of outside, or vice versa. There may be a simple cause for the barking in the dogs environment. Alternating, whenever the dog barks, use it as a cue to start the next training session, get its attention and work on one of the commands listed below. If all else fails, there are special ultrasonic and electric collars available which can eliminate barking. Find out more about the various causes of excessive barking and what you can do to stop dogs barking, and learn an effective technique for dealing with Jack Russell barking problems.
Begging for food. It's not a good idea to give your dog scraps from the dinner table unless he's done something to earn it. He will start to think there's food on offer every time you sit down to eat. If you want to give your dog a scrap, get him to perform a basic command such as Sit or Stay first, and use the scrap as a reward.
Destroying property. If your Jack Russell has a habit of chewing your favorite shoes or the sofa, it may be a sign that the dog isn't getting enough exercise. Increase the number of walks and the length of time you walk the dog for. Destruction can also be a sign that the dog is getting bored during long periods when there's no one at home. Destroying things is actually a sign of affection - it means your dog misses you. If you think this is the case, there are a few solutions. You can train the dog to become used to being alone by slowly expanding its comfort zone and leaving it alone for longer and longer periods. If this isn't an option, you'll need to re-arrange your schedule so your dog can see more of you, or consider hiring a dog sitter. Counter-intuitive though it may seem, getting another JRT to keep your dog company may reduce the destruction problem. You could rescue a JRT from a shelter and save its life - and your shoes.
Growling and aggression. This may be a sign that your dog hasn't been socialized enough. For the energetic Jack Russell, training begins with meeting other dogs. The solution to socialization problems is to slowly introduce your dog to other dogs and new people. (I recommend getting a muzzle for this.) Be aware though - it may also be a sign of ill health and require a trip to the vet, especially if the aggression comes with other symptoms. The dog may be in pain. It can also be the result of an imbalance in the dominant-submissive roles between you and the dog. Here are some more tips on how to deal with an aggressive Jack Russell Terrier.
Going to the toilet inside. This is completely natural with puppies and you will have to house-train a new pup. If an older dog is soiling inside, it may be a sign of illness. Watch for signs of blood in the urine or unusually frequent urination. It can also be the result of submissiveness on the part of the dog, in which case punishment will only make the problem worse. As with destroying property it may also be the result of anxiety caused by your absence or a lack of attention and it should be treated with the same training as I recommend for destructive behavior. Try housebreaking the dog again and if the problem continues, see the vet.
Biting. Play-biting in puppies is completely normal and can eventually be trained out with a light tap on the nose and a firm "no" when the biting hurts. Holding the pup's muzzle shut for a few seconds can also help - this is a technique based on natural parental dog habits. Aggressive snapping and biting in older dogs is a problem that needs serious attention, as a court may order your dog to be put down if it bites another dog or a person (depending where you live).
Running away. As an escape-artist, the average Jack Russell puts Houdini to shame. There's not a lot you can do to train your dog out of this. Spaying and neutering can curb the tendency, as most escape attempts are for made so that the dog can go roaming to look for a mate. Apart from that, Jack Russell-proof your back yard and make sure visitors always shut the gate. You can also keep the dog inside when you're not around and provide it a newspapered toilet area.
Digging. As hunting dogs, JRTs are born to dig. Being a keen gardener and being a Jack Russell owner do not go well together. If your JRT digs up everything in sight, more exercise may be the solution. Fence off your garden and lay chicken wire or mesh under the dirt at the bottom of any fences, so your dog can't dig its way out.
Being hyperactive. Most Jack Russells qualify as hyperactive by nature, so this is not abnormal. Generally speaking if hyperactivity in a dog bothers you - choose a different breed. Excessive hyperactivity can be cured with an increase in exercise.
The good news is, all of these problems can be solved with a few good techniques. I explain how to solve every one of these problems in my ebook, The Jack Russell Lover's Ultimate Guide To Training.
Reading Dog Body Language
It makes training a lot easier when you know what some of the little canine body language signals mean. Learning some of these will give you a much better understanding of what's going on inside your dog's head. Read all about dog body language.
Basic Jack Russell Training
Your Jack Russell Training program should include these simple commands: Training a dog to Come
Other Basic Dog Commands (Leave It, Drop It, Wait)
If you have trouble teaching any of these, you may need a few troubleshooting techniques. My ebook contains troubleshooting techniques for all the basic obedience commands, specific to Jack Russells and their personalities.
Jack Russell training can be made simpler by the use of a clicker device. I discuss the role of the clicker in training in my full-length training ebook.
Thank you for reading this page on Jack Russell Training and being a responsible JRT owner. Many dog owners never bother to train their pets properly - a contributing factor to the number of JRTs killed by cars or put down at shelters every year.
To take the next step in your Jack Russell training efforts, go ahead and sign up for the free special report on the Top Ten Training Mistakes. Avoiding these mistakes will mean a lot less time spent banging your head against the wall over your dog's behavior.
- 1 Early life and career
- 2 YouTube channels
- 2.1 Vlogbrothers
- 2.1.1 Brotherhood 2.0 (2007)
- 2.1.2 Post-Brotherhood 2.0 (2008–present)
- 2.2 Crash Course
- 2.3 SciShow
- 2.4 PBS Eons
- 2.5 Journey to the Microcosmos
- 2.6 Bizarre Beasts
- 2.7 Pemberley Digital
- 2.7.1 The Lizzie Bennet Diaries
- 2.7.2 Welcome to Sanditon, Emma Approved, and Frankenstein MD
- 2.8 As producer
- 2.8.1 The Brain Scoop and Sexplanations
- 2.8.2 Mental Floss
- 2.8.3 How to Adult and Animal Wonders
- 2.8.4 Cereal Time
- 2.1 Vlogbrothers
- 3 Podcasts
- 3.1 Dear Hank & John
- 3.2 Holy Fucking Science
- 3.3 DELETE THIS
- 3.4 SciShow Tangents
- 4 Companies and events
- 4.1 Complexly
- 4.2 Project for Awesome
- 4.3 DFTBA Records
- 4.3.1 DFTBA Games
- 4.4 VidCon
- 4.5 Subbable
- 4.6 NerdCon: Stories
- 5 Other projects
- 5.1 Music
- 5.2 Novels
- 5.3 2D-Glasses
- 5.4 TikTok
- 6 Personal life
- 7 Works
- 7.1 Books
- 7.2 Other
- 7.3 Filmography
- 7.4 Discography
- 7.4.1 Studio albums
- 7.4.2 Live albums
- 7.4.3 Compilation albums
- 7.4.4 Singles
- 7.4.5 Other appearances
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Green was born to Mike and Sydney Green (born 1952)  in Birmingham, Alabama,  and his family soon moved to Orlando, Florida, where he was raised.  He graduated from Winter Park High School in 1998 and then earned a B.S. in Biochemistry from Eckerd College and a M.S. in Environmental Studies from the University of Montana.  His master's thesis was entitled "Of Both Worlds: How the Personal Computer and the Environmental Movement Change Everything". 
Throughout high school and college Green created and designed websites for himself and local clients. His first project, the "Mars Exploration Page" in 1994, experienced minor success on the heels of the Mars Pathfinder Mission. Later website, IHateI4.com, brought press from local news channels and the Orlando Sentinel.  Green continued as a web developer after moving to Montana for graduate school, focusing on developing websites for educational institutions (including the University of Montana) and environmental non-profit organizations.
While in graduate school, Green created "EcoGeek", a blog focusing on technological advancements that would benefit the environment.  Starting out as a class project,  EcoGeek evolved into a major environmental publication.  EcoGeek caught the attention of Time, where it was described as "porn for hardcore science, tech and enviro freaks".  Writing about environmental issues, Green has been published on numerous environmental blogs, including Treehugger.com, Yahoo! Green, The National Geographic Green Guide, Scientific American, The Weather Channel, Planet Green, NPR  and in the New York Times. 
During the mid-2000s, Green wrote regularly for Mental Floss and co-authored one of their books, Mental Floss: Scatterbrained. 
Brotherhood 2.0 (2007) Edit
From January 1 to December 31, 2007, Hank and his brother John ran a video blog project titled Brotherhood 2.0.   The original project ran every week day for the entire year, with the premise that the brothers would cease all text-based ("textual") communication for the year and instead converse by daily video blogs, made available to the public via their YouTube channel Vlogbrothers and on their website. 
Post-Brotherhood 2.0 (2008–present) Edit
In 2008, John and Hank met up with their fans, known as "Nerdfighters". The first gathering was a last-minute decision, but despite the short three-day notice, nearly a hundred people attended. In August, John and Hank were invited to the Google office in Chicago to talk about the project.  That same day, they filled the Harold Washington Library with about four hundred young adults.  Following John's book tour for his third novel, Paper Towns, the brothers went on a national tour in November. With events in 17 different cities, they met Nerdfighters at local libraries and community centers. During this tour, Green released his first album of Nerdfighter-themed songs, titled So Jokes. 
The Green brothers have been interviewed on PotterCast, and have been recurring keynote speakers at the Harry Potter fan convention LeakyCon.  The Brotherhood 2.0 project succeeded in its original mission. The two brothers have come to communicate more thoroughly with each other, and have a larger influence in each other's lives than before the project was initiated. The brothers talked on the phone once or twice a year before Brotherhood 2.0, but, according to Hank's wife Katherine, they now "talk almost every day."  John and Hank continued to post vlogs every Tuesday and Friday on their channel. Their video topics vary from explanations of current events, reunion videos, joke videos, rant videos, thoughts from various places, Question Tuesdays, and random topics. As of July 5, 2020, they have posted over 1,800 videos. The channel has more than 3 million subscribers, and their videos have been watched over 840,000,000 times.  
Crash Course Edit
In January 2012, Hank and John Green created the educational YouTube channel Crash Course, as part of the site's Original Channel Initiative.  The channel features several educational courses based on the high school curriculum, and first launched with series focusing on Biology and World History. According to John, the brothers see Crash Course "as an introduction, as a way to get kids excited about learning, not as an attempt to replace traditional classroom materials."  Their goal is to create "resources that allow for more valuable interaction in the classroom,"  with hopes that the channel will one day span the entire high school curriculum. 
The channel was initially hosted by the two brothers, with Hank focusing on the science courses and John teaching the humanities courses. The channel has since expanded to welcome new hosts such as Craig Benzine, Phil Plait, and Emily Graslie into its roster, and has launched new courses such as Astronomy, Physics, and Philosophy.    As part of YouTube Kids, a separate Crash Course: Kids channel was launched in March 2015, with Sabrina Cruz hosting a Science course geared toward a younger audience.  
Crash Course has received praise from students and teachers alike.  It has been awarded grants by Bill Gates' bgC3, and has struck a partnership with PBS Digital Studios to continue developing more series,  although the majority of its funding comes from viewer support via Patreon. 
Green created the science YouTube channel SciShow in January 2012, which, like Crash Course, was also initially funded by the online video website.  The channel features a series of videos focused on several scientific fields such as chemistry, physics, and biology, as well as interviews and trivia shows with experts. Green aims for SciShow's content to be approachable and to dispel the idea that science is an inherently difficult subject.  Like Crash Course, SciShow is meant to be supplementary to the traditional educational experience, with Green's goal being "to be good at one thing so teachers can be good at other things." 
SciShow is primarily hosted by Green, though it has since expanded with Michael Aranda taking on additional hosting duties, as well as with occasional appearances by Lindsey Doe and Emily Graslie. A spin-off channel, SciShow Space, was launched in April 2014 to cover space topics,  and is hosted by Green, Reid Reimers, and Caitlin Hofmeister. A third channel, SciShow Kids, premiered in March 2015.  It is aimed at 3- to 6-year-olds and is hosted by Jessi Knudsen Castañeda.  Late in 2016, its patrons on Patreon chose a topic for a new channel, SciShow Psych, which launched in March 2017. It is hosted by Hank Green and Brit Garner who teach about the human brain and aim to provide clear and reputable psychology information. 
The channel has amassed a large audience, with its videos being regularly featured on several media outlets.     Green and SciShow were granted a national advertisement deal with YouTube that featured promotion on billboards and television commercials.  The channel has been praised as "informative, casual without being condescending, and funny,"  though it has been criticized for providing biased information on genetic modification,   which was later addressed in a video. 
PBS Eons Edit
At VidCon in June 2017, Green announced a new PBS Digital Studios partner channel, to be hosted by himself, SciShow writer Blake de Pastino, and paleontologist Kallie Moore, titled Eons. It documents the history of life on Earth, "From the dawn of life in the Archaean Eon . right up to the end of the most recent Ice Age." It premiered June 26, 2017.  As of November 25 2020 Eons has over 1.61 million subscribers and 218 million views.
Journey to the Microcosmos Edit
Started in June 2019, Journey to the Microcosmos is hosted by Green and produced by Complexly. It explores the microscopic world, with topics such as bacteria, tardigrades, and other microorganisms. The music is produced by Andrew Huang. 
Bizarre Beasts Edit
Started in June 2020, Bizarre Beasts is hosted by Hank Green and Sarah Suta and produced by Complexly. The channel releases monthly videos exploring a specific unusual animal, such as chameleons, kākāpō, and yeti crabs. 
Pemberley Digital Edit
The Lizzie Bennet Diaries Edit
On April 9, 2012, Hank Green and co-creator, Bernie Su, premiered a new web series, The Lizzie Bennet Diaries. This series is a modern adaptation of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, his wife's favorite book, and is conveyed through the form of vlogs. The series stars Ashley Clements, Mary Kate Wiles, Laura Spencer, and Julia Cho. The channel has over 160,000 subscribers, with more than 22.5 million video views. The series also bridged other online media, such as Twitter and Tumblr pages under the names of characters and entities from the series.  Green was also one of the writers of the series. 
Welcome to Sanditon, Emma Approved, and Frankenstein MD Edit
As a result of The Lizzie Bennet Diaries' success, Pemberley Digital launched Welcome to Sanditon in 2013, a spin-off web-series based on Jane Austen's unfinished novel Sanditon. Green and Su serve as executive producers, with Lizzie Bennet Diaries' producers Margaret Dunlap and Jay Bushman serving as creators, executive producers, and showrunners.  The series follows Gigi Darcy when she moves to Sanditon, California to run a beta demo of the Pemberley Digital Domino application.
The next Pemberley Digital project was Emma Approved, an adaptation of Jane Austen's Emma, which premiered in 2014.  Created by Su, who executive produces with Green, the web-series follows Emma Woodhouse as she documents her business success with her lifestyle company. 
Pemberley Digital partnered with PBS Digital Studios to produce the company's first web-series not based on a novel written by Austen.  Frankenstein, MD, a modern adaptation of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein co-created by Su, Brett Register, and Lon Harris, premiered in 2014 on the PBS Digital YouTube channel.  The series was executive produced by Su and Green, and follows PhD student Victoria Frankenstein, portrayed by as Anna Lore, and Iggy DeLacey, portrayed by Steve Zaragoza, as they make videos for their science YouTube channel. 
As producer Edit
The Brain Scoop and Sexplanations Edit
In his Vlogbrothers video uploaded on December 7, 2012, Green featured Emily Graslie, a curatorial assistant at the Philip L. Wright Zoological Museum. In this video, she showed Green a wide variety of specimens in the lab. Due to her ease in front of the camera, enthusiasm, and fan comments, Graslie was offered her own YouTube channel The Brain Scoop as a part of the Nerdfighter family. The series debuted in January 2013. The Brain Scoop was acquired by The Field Museum of Natural History in 2014 
After The Brain Scoop, Green began working as executive producer on a YouTube channel called Sexplanations with sexologist Lindsey Doe. The channel, whose purpose is to encourage questions about topics such as sex, relationships, sexuality and contraceptives, had its first episode on June 10, 2013. 
Mental Floss Edit
Following the success of Crash Course and SciShow, Green and his brother John partnered with Mental Floss to produce and co-host a YouTube channel based on the magazine.  Both Green brothers wrote for the magazine years before they were approached to help launch the YouTube channel.  The first series, called The List Show, features John Green presenting several interesting facts and bits of trivia related to a central topic.  The channel has since launched two other series: Big Questions, hosted by Craig Benzine, and Misconceptions, hosted by Elliott Morgan.   Initially, Hank was slated to host a quiz show based on his abandoned YouTube channel Truth or Fail, in which viewers would answer several questions via link annotations, jumping from video to video to find out answers and get more questions.   Only one episode of the Quiz Show was released, though Hank has stayed on as producer on the other series, as well as occasionally guest hosting The List Show.  
How to Adult and Animal Wonders Edit
Hank and John Green produced How to Adult, an educational web-series hosted by vloggers and young adult novelists T. Michael Martin and Emma Mills.   The series premiered in February 2014 and is meant to offer solutions and teach life skills to newly minted adults.  The channel features Martin and Mills, as well as guest appearances by Hank and Emily Graslie, talking about topics not generally covered in school and teaching skills and dispensing advice surrounding adulthood.  The series was pitched to the Green brothers by Martin and Mills, who then decided to help fund and produce the channel.  Green partnered with Animal Wonders, a non-profit organization that rescues animals and houses them in its center, to launch a new YouTube channel focused on animals in 2014.  Animal Wonders is hosted by Jessi Knudsen Castañeda, a regular guest of the SciShow Talk Show, and founder and executive director of Animal Wonders, Inc. The channel is produced and directed by Caitlin Hofmeister and Matthew Gaydos, and features a wide range of animals residing in the animal center, as well as information on petcare, training, and animal behavior. 
Cereal Time Edit
In June 2015, Green teamed-up with Charlie McDonnell and Jimmy Hill to produce a new daily morning show titled Cereal Time. The idea came from Green, who serves as an executive producer on the series, after McDonnell asked him for advice on his next projects.  The show premiered every weekday morning at 7:00 GMT on the Cereal Time YouTube channel, and featured McDonnell and Hill having a conversation over breakfast and discussing several topics.   The show is influenced by Rhett and Link's Good Mythical Morning, and McDonnell has described the show as "authentic" likening his presenting style as "a bit more of myself than I am on my main YouTube channel."  Green stated that his role as executive producer mostly involves paying for production, and while he confirmed that the show isn't profitable, he assured viewers that it would continue.  The show is currently on hiatus, with no sign yet of the show's return. 
Dear Hank & John Edit
In June 2015, Hank Green and his brother John Green started a weekly podcast titled Dear Hank & John.  They refer to it as "A comedy podcast about death". Taking a mainly humorous tone, each episode involves the brothers reading a series of questions submitted by listeners and offering their dubious advice. The episode closes with a news segment with two standard topics: Mars, presented by Hank, and AFC Wimbledon, presented by John.
Hank has said that he enjoys the more conversational tone of the podcast, as it more closely resembles what the Vlogbrothers videos used to be like. 
Holy Fucking Science Edit
In February 2017, Green launched Holy Fucking Science, a new "science podcast with the enthusiasm (and language) of a gaming channel."  It is available both as an audio-only cast, and in video form on YouTube. It was canceled March 2018 after 58 episodes due to regrets about using fuck in the title and wishes to change up the format.  In late 2018 the panelists from HFS returned in SciShow Tangents, another podcast with a similar format. 
DELETE THIS Edit
In March 2018, Hank and his wife Katherine launched a new podcast, DELETE THIS, in which they take a look at Hank's Twitter feed from the previous week and analyze its impact on the conversation and his followers, as a gateway to considering the overall role of social media in society.  In August 2020, the podcast was reformatted and retitled TASKMISTRESS, in which Katherine critiques episodes of the program Taskmaster and provides alternatives to the judgments of its host, Greg Davies.  In January 2021, the podcast abandoned the Taskmaster theme and returned to broadly being a discussion about social media and internet culture. 
SciShow Tangents Edit
In November 2018, Green together with the other Holy Fucking Science panelists started SciShow Tangents which they describe as a "lightly competitive knowledge showcase".  Every episode they deliver science facts related to the episodes topic in different formats such as poems, questions from listeners, and guess the real fact.  
In 2016, Hank's LLC and production company EcoGeek was renamed Complexly (after the phrase "Imagine Others Complexly").  Complexly is the umbrella organization which produces and manages most of Hank's YouTube shows, as well as a number of other shows and podcasts. 
Project for Awesome Edit
In 2007, brothers John and Hank introduced the annual charity project titled the Project for Awesome (P4A),  a project in which YouTube users take two days, traditionally December 17 and 18, to create videos promoting charities or nonprofit organizations of their choosing. The total amount of money raised every year has continued to incrementally increase (with the exception of 2011). In 2021, the event took place February 12-14, and a record $2,368,016 was raised. 
DFTBA Records Edit
DFTBA Records (an initialism for "Don't Forget to Be Awesome") is an e-commerce merchandise company that was co-founded by Green and Alan Lastufka in 2008. Originally a record label, its main focus was music generated by prominent YouTube stars like Green himself, Dave Days, Charlie McDonnell, Molly Lewis, among others. The company now focuses on selling merchandise for prominent YouTube stars, such as Green and his brother John, Charlie McDonnell, Rhett and Link, CGP Grey, and Hannah Hart, among several others.   DFTBA Records has a prominently independent distribution network. 
The goal of the record label, as Lastufka stated in a video on the subject, is to provide a distribution network for talented artists of YouTube and to make sure their music reaches out to the "largest audience possible."  The record label claims to aid a bigger audience in connecting with the artists, and make the "YouTube experience" more lucrative, more exciting, and more fun. Aside from music albums, the label's official website sells other forms of merchandise, such as T-shirts, accessories, and posters.
On June 19, 2014, Lastufka announced that he had sold his entire stake in the company and resigned as president, to pursue other projects. 
DFTBA Games Edit
In January 2015, Green announced plans for a game company called DFTBA Games on the crowdfunding platform Kickstarter.  He launched the first DFTBA Games project Wizard School in September 2015. Wizard School is tabletop card game meant to emulate attending and "graduating" from "Wizard School." This project was fully funded within the same day it launched. 
VidCon is an annual conference based around online video first held in 2010. Along with his brother, John, Hank founded VidCon in response to the growing online video community. Hank states, "We wanted to get as much of the online video community together, in one place, in the real world for a weekend. It's a celebration of the community, with performances, concerts, and parties but it's also a discussion of the explosion in community-based online video." 
The event draws many popular YouTube users, as well as their fans, and provides room for the community to interact. The event also contains an industry conference for people and businesses working in the online video field. Since its inception, the annual attendance of the event has grown.
After two years of producing Crash Course and SciShow through grants provided by YouTube, the Green brothers decided to find a more sustainable way to fund the projects. In 2013, they launched Subbable, a monthly subscription-based crowdfunding platform similar to Kickstarter that would let subscribers pledge a monthly donation to creators and receive perks in exchange by building up a pledge bank.  Among the platform's initial creators and channels were the Green brothers' Crash Course and SciShow, and YouTubers CGP Grey, MinutePhysics and Wheezy Waiter.  In the Subbable introduction video, Green said:
The advertising system is so ingrained that there isn't a technological solution, but there might be a cultural solution. Cultural changes need activation energy and they need catalysts. Nerdfighteria has become kind of a pretty powerful force, so I feel like Nerdfighteria can be the activation energy and Subbable could be the catalyst. 
In March 2015, Patreon, another subscription-based crowdfunding platform, acquired Subbable and added Subbable's creators into its fold, with the bulk of the acquisition money going to match up to $100,000 in pledges to ease the transition.  Although talks of the two companies joining forces had been discussed since their launch, they only got serious after Amazon announced a change in its payment services, which would lead to Subbable creators losing subscribers.  As part of the deal, the Green brothers received a small portion of Patreon and Hank signed on as unpaid advisor. 
NerdCon: Stories Edit
On the subject of stories, Green has said:
Stories, of course, are an easy thing to love. They're how we understand the world . how we pass information from person to person. I'm serious when I say that I think stories are a bit part of what makes us human, so when I was thinking of things I wanted to celebrate, that stuck out. 
Following VidCon's success, Green launched a new conference, NerdCon: Stories, focusing on all types of storytelling media, in 2015. The first NerdCon: Stories was held at the Minneapolis Convention Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota, during October 9–10, 2015.  The two-day conference attracted around 3,000 attendees, and featured guests such as Hank and John Green, Patrick Rothfuss, Maureen Johnson, Maggie Stiefvater, John Scalzi, and the Welcome to Night Vale cast and crew, among other storytellers, authors, performers, and musicians. 
The second NerdCon: Stories returned to the Minneapolis Convention Center on October 14–15, 2016, with many of its original guests. 
During the Brotherhood 2.0 project, Green accepted a challenge to perform an original song bi-weekly (known as "Song Wednesdays") and he has continued, though less frequently, to write, record, and perform songs since then. His songs include "I'm Gonna Kill You," "Baby, I Sold Your Dog on eBay," and "What Would Captain Picard Do?". Green's first successful song was "Accio Deathly Hallows", which was featured on YouTube's front page preceding the release of the final Harry Potter book,  and has been viewed over two million times. 
Green's first studio album, So Jokes, was released in 2008 and reached number 22 on the Billboard Top 25 revenue generating albums online.  He has since released four other albums: I'm So Bad at This: Live! (2009), This Machine Pwns n00bs (2009), Ellen Hardcastle (2011) which was named for the winner of a 2010 charity raffle, and Incongruent (2014) with his new band, Hank Green and the Perfect Strangers.   The album was released on May 7, 2014. 
Green's debut novel, An Absolutely Remarkable Thing, was published on September 25, 2018. It is a science fiction novel about a young woman who gains overnight fame when she stumbles across an alien structure.  The book debuted as a New York Times Bestseller.  The sequel, A Beautifully Foolish Endeavor, was released on July 7, 2020  and was on the July 26, 2020 New York Times Bestsellers list at number 6. 
When signing novels, Green often includes a symbol known as the "Hank-lerfish," meant to resemble an anglerfish. 
In 2011, Green created "2-D" glasses, which allow one to watch 3-D movies in 2-D. The glasses were originally created for those who experience discomfort watching 3-D movies (such as Green's wife) and consist of either two right or two left lenses from a pair of regular 3-D glasses. 
In September 2019, Green started creating content on TikTok in the form of short educational videos. As of February 2021, he has over 3.6 million followers and over 169.8 million likes on his page.  His content mainly consists of educational, humorous, and social-commentary videos. 
He has also made videos discussing TikTok on both hankschannel and Vlogbrothers. 
Hank Green resides in Missoula, Montana, with his wife, Katherine Green.  They had their first child, a son named Orin, in 2016. 
Green was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis in 2006.  Hank Green was diagnosed with a learning disorder as a child and speculates he likely would have been diagnosed with ADHD if he was born 10 years later.    In 2013, Green described himself as straight while also saying "I think I'm a little bit bi [but] not bi enough to care".  Green has stated he does not believe in a god. 
The time it takes to you to tinkle is probably about the same as an elephant, even though an elephant's bladder is over 100 times larger. How can that be right? The answer is a combination of physiology and fluid dynamics.
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Mammals, whether they be cats or people or wildebeests, have a few things in common you know, hair, milk. and peeing for 21 seconds. This is an actual thing!
Lots of mammals take about 21 seconds to empty their full bladder. It doesn’t matter if their bladder contains 5 milliliters of urine or 18 liters. 21 seconds seems to be the magic number. And that’s thanks to a combination of physiology and fluid dynamics.
The time it takes to tinkle depends on the amount you need to expel and the flow rate— how fast you expel it. That rate, in turn, depends on things like the width of your urethra— the pipe that delivers urine from the bladder to the outside world— and the pressure pushing the pee out. And it just so happens that those pipes are fairly proportional: that is, the larger the animal, the longer and wider the urethra.
The pressure created by an animal’s bladder muscles is remarkably constant— about 5.2 kilopascals, if you were wondering. You know you have that number in your brain. I'm sure it'll stay there for a long time.
But the overall pressure pushing the urine out also depends on both that and the urine’s hydrostatic pressure: the pressure exerted by the fluid itself. So if you're a horse, there's a lot of weight in the bladder, and all of that mass is pushing down on the urine at the bottom and so it gets pushed the same amount by the bladder but much more by the hydrostatic pressure. . whereas if you're a cat you have less liquid pushing down on the liquid and the same amount of bladder pressure but less hydrostatic pressure. All of that means that urine in a large animal is being pushed out more forcefully through a tube that’s proportionally wider. . that makes it flow more quickly, which makes up for any difference in volume.
We know all this because some researchers actually did the math in a 2014 paper in. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. They also filmed and watched a bunch of animals pee to validate their results, which, you know, that's science!
There are a few caveats, though. The 21 second rule only counts for full bladders in mammals heavier than 3 kilograms. For smaller animals like little bats, rats, or mice, something different happens.
They urinate in a series of quick droplets because the thinness of their urethras and the friction created by the flowing fluid actually pushes up on the liquid, opposing the force of gravity. This makes the urine droplets stick to the walls of the urethra at first, and grow bigger in size until they’re heavy enough for gravity to take over. Then, they fall out quickly— usually, in less than a second.
It also might not apply to aquatic mammals because the water, especially at depth, applies pressure to the urethra and pushes the pee back up the pipe. The same goes for swimmers— it takes you longer to pee in the pool. Not that you’d ever do that.
And, to be clear, none of this counts for reptiles or birds because they’ve got a whole different excretion system. Now while this might sound kind of like…silly to study animal peeing, understanding the physics and mathematics of urine flow actually has some practical applications. Engineers could apply these findings to design systems where reservoirs, water towers or even water backpacks of different sizes take the same amount of time to empty.
And this also suggests that studying urinary diseases in small animals like rodents might not be applicable to humans because their whole peeing process is just fundamentally different than what we do. . even though we have the same basic body parts. It just goes to show that some curious research can sometimes lead to useful results. Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
Now If you're here thinking "Well that was good but I want to know more about my pee, well, we have a whole episode on what your pee says about you. < â™ªOUTRO >.
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How Stars, Question Marks, Dogs, and Cows Are All Business-Related
Posted by Alyssa Mertes October 2nd, 2020 3 Minute Read
It takes a special marketing class to really learn the in’s and out’s of appealing to customers. If you don’t want to sit through a class, stay right here for a crash course. There’s a direct way stars, question marks, cows, and dogs relate to your business.
Does that sound crazy? It shouldn’t! In 1966, the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) created the BCG Portfolio Matrix to determine each Strategic Business Unit’s (SBU) return on investment, growth potential, and level of risk. Each quadrant was broken down into basic categories that you learned in kindergarten – Stars, Question Marks, Dogs, and Cows.
You’re probably very confused about what each image means and why it’s broken down this way. As a business owner, you can use this chart to help you determine which of your products are working and which ones are complete duds. Here’s how!
Star: This is a fast-growing market leader that yields large profits but needs a lot of cash to finance its growth. If you can catch customers in the product’s prime, you’re likely to strike gold! Think of it like a child actor who loses their fame after they get gray hairs and a deeper voice.
Question Mark/Problem Child: These products show promise because of their rapid growth, but because of their poor profit margins, they end up creating a lot of questions. These unanswered questions could end up affecting your bottom line.
Dog: Products in this category have low-growth potential and own a very small market share. Your only options are to either grab your money and run or completely scratch the idea and move on. In other words, “let a sleeping dog lie.”
Cash Cow: This is a product that’s sitting in the pasture waiting to be milked (not literally, of course). These products generate more cash than they need to maintain the market share and the revenue made is used to fund Stars and fix Question Marks.
There you have it! You can break all the products and services you offer into these categories and figure out a better plan of action. If you need a reminder, or want this wisdom to exist in the office every day, you can’t go wrong with a star stress reliever, cow stress ball, or dog stress toy!